A teraz inne źródło co się dzieje z ziemniakiem ze strony Ministerstwa Rolnictwa Królestwa Niderlandów. TLDR, spadająca konsumpcja od upadku PRL, prymitywna kultura rolna, skrajne rozdrobnienie rolników i brak norm sanitarnych w uprawie do tego stopnia że UE musiała wejść do gry by choroby nie wyniszczyły upraw w innych krajach.
Back to 1990: Poland was the second biggest potato producer in the world (only the Soviet Union was a bigger producer). As a single country, its production equaled that of the whole European Community. Yields per hectare were lower than in other countries (on average 18-20 ton per ha), but total production equaled 36313 thousand tons in 1990 (1).
Forward to 2018: according to Eurostat, total potato production of Poland was 7 311 thousand tons (total EU production: 51 846 thousand tons). A decline of more than 75% is noted compared to 1990. However, Poland still is the second largest potato grower in the European Union after Germany (8 920 thousand tons), and is followed by France and the Netherlands.
There are currently 350 000 potato producers in Poland cultivating larger or smaller quantities, of which only 50 000 are officially registered. Farmers who cultivate potatoes on land smaller than 1 ha most often do not register their plantations. This causes a problem because they sell their products only on domestic market (local markets mainly, not in shops) and therefore are also partly responsible for the phytosanitary security of the country. The majority of farms producing potatoes in Poland were still small-scale farms in 2017. These small farms have an average acreage of 0.3 ha. The country has 9000 more intensive potato farms; these have an average acreage of 13.2 hectares.
troubling factor for the Polish domestic potato production is the decreasing demand for potatoes. Recent years saw a decline of domestic consumption of potatoes up to 100 kg per capita a year in 2016 (in 2013 according to FAOSTAT 104 kg per capita a year; a decline of 28% compared to 1990 or 20% decline compared to 2004). The decreased demand for potatoes in the domestic market creates perhaps a need to focus on foreign markets.
After Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, Poland faced several export restrictions due to the presence of potato disease. Poland had a high level of infection of potatoes with Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. Sepedonicus (in short: Cms), the bacterium causing ring rot disease. The disease is subject to quarantine according to the Directive EC/2000/29/EC. The bacterium infects both its own stems, stolons as well as daughter tubers. In 2004, an unfortunate 23.6% of Polish potatoes was infected. In 2017 numbers of infections had dropped to 6/7% of total potatoes infected, also due to sampling more potatoes per hectare for the bacterium (in 2014 in Poland this was 0.67 ha per sample, one of most stringent checks in the European Union) (5). Part of this may also be ascribed to the 2009 initiated promotional and information programmes, subsidized by 38 million PLN (7).
The infection rate of 6/7% of total potatoes in 2017 is still high compared to the figure of outside Poland, where only 0.93% of total potatoes are infected. Only the use of quarantine and using certified seed potatoes can prevent (further) spread of this bacterium. Nonetheless, precisely the opposite was noted between 1990-2005; there was very little use of certified seed potatoes in Poland. This might have contributed to further spreading of the disease. Simultaneously, it was noted that on very small potato cultivation areas, the use of certified seed potatoes was only 5%, mainly attributed to not-market oriented producers (3)
https://www.agroberichtenbuitenland.nl/actueel/nieuws/2019/07/31/quick-scan-on-the-polish-potato-market-and-policy pokaż całość