Here goes nothing

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    Znajomi z pracy mówią, że wcale po mnie nie widać, żebym żarła słodycze i pizze Donatello tonami #pdk. Ale mówią też, że wcale nie widać, żebym ćwiczyła na #silownia

    #mikrokoksy bo dawno żodyn różowy pasek nie spamował pod tagiem.

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    #eu4 #historia #anglia #wielkabrytania

    https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Charta_Libertatum
    https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deklaracja_praw

    Jakim cudem Anglii/Wielkiej Brytanii udało się osiągnąć takie sukcesy z takim "lewackim" prawem i ustrojem? Polska przez demokrację w czasach gdy praktycznie każde mocarstwo było trzymane krótko za mordę była w srogiej dupie zwieńczonej rozbiorami. Tymczasem w Anglii mieliśmy od średniowiecza Wielką Kartę Swobód i chuj kurwa "Sun never sets" skurwysyny.

    Jakim cudem Francuska i Hiszpańska agentura nie rozjebały tego na kawałki tak jak u nas zaorali Prusacy z Ruskimi?
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    A tak w ogóle wiadomo co się dzieje teraz z Teslą Elona?
    #elonmusk #spacex

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    #fantastyka #tolkien
    tego się nie spodziewałem

    There are traditionally two main phases of Numenor related colonial activity- the first is the initial, lengthier Exploitation of Middle Earth, and the second is the Flight from Numenor.

    The Exploitation of Middle Earth is traditionally dated from the beginning of Tar-Ciryatan's reign in Numenor, that is to say SA 1634. The important context to this is that his father, Tar-Minastir, had been the first of the Numenorian kings to engage the forces of Sauron in open battle, and he had been victorious, thus ending the notion of Numenor having no military responsibilities in Middle Earth. But also we see the first manifestation of antikwendic sentiment in a political, open fashion in the traditionally Elf-friendly monarchy of Numenor. We can endlessly speculate as to why exactly Tar-Minastir was the first Numenorian king to be unable to be content with the Gift of Numenor and who could not stomach the Ban of Men. But the ultimate consequences of this was that the Numenorian monarchy began to no longer support the Edainic-Noldorin syncretic culture that been the basis of the Numenorian state, and also began to see the coasts of Middle Earth as a source of glory and wealth.

    It was in Tar-Minastir's reign that the colony of Tharbad was founded, the timber around the older haven at Vinyalonde having been exhausted scant decades into Tar-Minastir's reign. This was also the beginning of conflict between the Adunaim and many of the Dunlendish peoples, for many of the coastal-dwelling communities found themselves needing to take up arms to prevent irreparable environmental harm at the hands of rapacious loggers. These conflicts were inevitably victorious for the Numenorian colonists, leading to many local mannish groups having to abandon their homesteads due to the consequences of the deforestation.

    The precise details of many of the changes in Numenorian politics are not so relevant to the remainder of this phase of Exploitation, except that other settlements such as Umbar were founded in imitation of Tharbad further north, and that those politically opposed to the increasingly anti-Elven Numenorian monarchy themselves sought escape in Middle-Earth too, such as at the great harbour of Pelargir which was founded within a relatively short time of Umbar. Matters soon came to a head, however, when the split over policy came to the point of opposing sides, with various Numenorian colonies having to declare for or against the increasingly anti-Elven policies of the monarchy.

    In the end, the Drowning of Numenor is such a well understood event that I shall not go into it here. But this definitively ends the phase of Exploitation, and begins the phase of Flight. Whether pro-Sauron or pro-Elendil, those who managed to escape Numenor inevitably came to join their brethren in Middle Earth, and swiftly after Elendil arrived he began to create an Imperial realm, stretching from the Bay of Forochel to the Bay of Belfalas. It was in this short period that the major cities of Osgiliath, Minas Anor, Minas Ithil, and Annuminas were all founded. But already in this period we find the evidence of the long-term impact of Numenorian colonisation- there were already mixed populations with Numenorian ancestry now living in the new kingdoms of Arnor and Gondor, and the Westron language had already emerged along the core areas of Adunaim settlement along Middle Earth's coast. In short, although the most visible expression of Numenorian colonisation comes at the very end of the Second Age, scant years before the death of Elendil and Gil-Galad, we should conclude that the majority of the work of colonisation had already been done in the preceding 1600 years, and the deepest roots had begun even earlier (although that has not been classified as colonialism here, because of the more careful and mutualistic relationship between these early Numenorian communities and their non-Numenorian neighbours).

    The long term effects of all these colonial periods ultimately resulted in the following; the creation of the Westron tongue and its existence as a lingua franca among Men and other races besides, by virtue of the widespread intercourse between Adunaic speakers and their distant cultural relatives along Middle Earth's coastlines (which in the Second Age and Early Third Age were highly mobile, interconnected to the rest of Middle Earth, and prosperous); the creation of the twin polities of Arnor and Gondor, who were to themselves colonise large portions of Middle Earth, and play a vital role in affairs for the entire rest of the Third Age; the founding of most of Middle Earth's great human settlements, especially in the transition away from oppida towards a fully agriculturalist, urbanised lifestyle in Gondor and Arnor; the utter ruin of many of the Dunlendish peoples, due to their being forced out of their traditional lands and treated as a racial Other by those of Numenorian descent or friendly to their successor states (with the men of the Breeland being a notable exception to this general rule); the abortive attempts to colonise the Haradrim, which nonetheless Adunaicised their aristocracy to a certain extent. Ultimately, even long after it had sunk beneath the waves, Numenor's expressionistic policies still dictated the shape and course of Third Age history in Middle Earth.
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